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What is MWVF?What is BiodieselThe differences between MWVF and RMETechnical summary of RME
Basic Chemistry of Organic Fuels
GLOSSARY OF RELEVANT CHEMISTRY TERMINOLOGY
Acid a classification of substances that liberate hydrogen ions in water, and are normally sour and corrosive, with a pH lower than 7. A compound or atom that donates protons.
Alcohol a large classification of organic compounds containing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to carbon atoms.
Aliphatic any non-aromatic organic compound
Aromatic any organic compound containing de-localised electrons in a ring structure - e.g. benzene, benzoic acid.
Alkali a classification of substances that liberate hydroxide ions in water, to form caustic and corrosive solutions which turn litmus paper blue, with a pH higher than 7, for example sodium Hydroxide. A compound that reacts with or neutralizes hydrogen ions.
Base a classification of substances which when combined with an acid will form a salt plus water, usually producing hydroxide ions when dissolved.
Bio-diesel C14 - C24 Methyl Ester. One of many FAMEs created from renewable organic sources
Bio-power The registered company name of and trade name of our company.
Bond the form of linkage between the individual atoms in a a molecule.
Bond an area within the manufacturing plant which is secured to prevent the theft of materials that have not been tax paid.
Bund The provision of liquid collection facilities which in the event of any leak or spillage from tanks or pipe work will capture well in excess of the volume of liquids held within the bund area. Bunded areas should drain to a capture tank which should have facilities for water/oil separation.
Burning the rapid oxidization of a substance in a manner that releases thermal energy
Calorific value the amount of heat or energy generated by a specified quantity of a fuel source
Carbon a common non-metallic element, occurring naturally as diamond, charcoal and graphite. One of the most important elements for the development of life, and the storage of energy.
Carbon chain the atomic structure of hydrocarbons in which a series of carbon atoms, saturated by hydrogen atoms, form a chain. Volatile oils have shorter chains. Fats have longer chain lengths, and waxes have extremely long chains.
Carbon cycle The continuous process of combining and releasing carbon and oxygen thereby storing and emitting heat and energy. Catabolism + anabolism = metabolism.
Carboxyl Carboxylic the uni-valent acid radical (-COOH), present in most organic acids, this making them bio-degradable.
Catalyst a substance which without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change, facilitates or enables a reaction between other substances.
CHP Combined Heat and Power. A phrase used to suggest greater efficiency obtained when the waste heat from generating electricity can be used locally to provide low temperature heat for processing or domestic heating.
Combustion a reaction in which a substance produces heat or light by combination with oxygen, producing an oxide.
DERV Diesel Engine Road Vehicle, but also used to describe the original form of mineral fuel used as a substitute for organic oils burned in compression ignition engines designed by Diesel.
Diesel non-volatile mineral fuel with a high flash point used in compression ignition engines, as invented by Dr Rudolf Diesel in 1895, originally running on peanut oil. The name of the inventor was then transferred by the petrochemical industry to the fossil fuel that became the substitute for the organic oils for which this form of engine was originally developed.
Energy of activation the amount of energy required as heat or pressure to disbalance an otherwise stable but energy storing compound so that it will release its potential energy. The energy that must be overcome to allow an otherwise exothermic reaction to proceed.
Entropy a measure of the unavailability of the thermal energy within a system for conversion into mechanical work All energy transformations (i.e. chemical to chemical, chemical to thermal) increase entropy.
Enzyme an organic proteinaceous compound that catalyses a specific biochemical reaction.
Esterification Production of ester by reacting alcohol and carboxylic acid
Ester a classification of organic compounds occurring naturally as oils and fats, produced by replacing the hydrogen of an acid by an alkyl, aryl, radical. A compound of an organic acid bonded via an ester bond to an alcohol.
Ethanol C2H6O An organic alcohol also called ethyl alcohol, formed when fermenting sugars or glycerin
FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Ester.
Fat a classification of natural esters of glycerol, and fatty acids existing as solids at room temperature.
Fossil remains of organic materials, subsequently buried within the earth’s crust, often carbonized as a result of intense heat and / or pressure.
Free liberated. In the case of triglycerides, meaning the fatty acid hydrocarbon chains are detached from glycerol, and thereby become free fatty acids.
Glycerin Glycerol C3H8O3, a sweet greasy organic substance, produced as a result of hydrolysing triglycerides.
Grease oily or fatty matter, normally of organic origin, consisting of hydrocarbon chains. (American term).
Hydrocarbon a compound of hydrogen and carbon, often occurring as long atomic chains in which each carbon atom is attached to two hydrogen atoms forming a long chain. They store a great deal of energy.
Hydrogen H The lightest gaseous element, and simplest of all atoms, occurring rarely in nature as a single atom, but common in the form of water, and in all organic compounds
Indicator a substance which changes colour at a given stage in or as a result of a chemical reaction.
Kerosene Dodecane (Kerosene) C12H26 commonly used mineral fuel oil used as aviation fuel and central heating consisting of many hydrocarbons containing molecules with about 10 to 16 carbon atoms.
Life-cycle analysis a total valuation of a process, in which all the inputs and outcomes of a reaction are fully considered.
Lipid a classification of organic compounds, including fatty acids, oils, waxes and steroids, that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
Methanol CH3OH A volatile colourless alcohol, derived originally as wood alcohol, used as a racing fuel and as a solvent. Also called methyl alcohol.
Methoxide Na O-CH3 The salt of methanol, sodium methoxide.
MWVF Modified Waste Vegetable Fat. The generic form of fuel made from non-transesterified fats that are made suitable for use in normal engines by blending with solvents.
Octane C8H18 Inflammable hydrocarbon of the alkane series, containing 8 carbons.
Oil a broad range of inflammable and often volatile organic compounds insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. In biological systems, a fat that is liquid at room temperature (20oC)
Organic compounds that contain carbon, which are often created as a result of a life process.
Oxidation burning in oxygen, normally highly exothermic (heat releasing), but also any increase in oxidization sate, (i.e. loss of electrons). Results in the formation of an oxide, rusting or corroding.
Oxygen O a common gaseous element, occurring naturally in the air, water, and most minerals and organic substances, essential to the reciprocal processes of plant and animal life. Highly reactive combining with other atoms, molecules and compounds through a process known as burning. Exists in the air as free molecules O2 (O3 = ozone), and also dissolves in water. Vast quantities are present in all biological systems, and in combined form in minerals and rocks.
Petrochemical substances derived from the winning of fossil hydrocarbons, in the form of crude oil or natural gas, and tars.
Photosynthesis the process used within living organisms by which energy from the sun is stored in carbohydrates made from carbon dioxide and water, using chlorofyll from plants. It is the major natural energy collecting reaction, occurring mainly in plants. Plants use chlorofyll (a green photo-active pigment) to capture solar energy within the chemical bonds of synthesised sugar molecules. The process effectively reduces carbon dioxide and water to produce sugar and oxygen.
Plants then synthesize other sugars, proteins, DNA, starch, cellulose and fats from these simple hexoze sugars.
Protein a type of organic compound normally consisting of one or more amino acid chains, essential to all living organisms
Reduction Classically, the removal of oxygen. Modern chemistry expands this concept to all compounds is defined as loss of electrons.
RME Rapeseed Methyl Ester. The form of fuel created by transesterifying fat as a Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, or FAME
Saturated containing the maximum number of hydrogen molecules, i.e. when every carbon atom in a hydrocarbon chain is attached to two hydrogen atoms.
State In organic chemistry, will produce CO2 + H2O + (possibly other compounds)
Stearine a glyceryl ester of stearic acid, derived from animal fats and used as tallow in the manufacture of candles and soap.
Tallow One of the harder organic fats derived from animal carcasses, made by rendering the internal body fat found within the abdominal cavity under the backbone and surrounding the kidneys, (suet). This material was greatly used in manufacture of soap and candle wax.
Transesterification The process of making bio-diesel by the separation of the three hydrocarbon chains from a lipid triglyceride to form glycerol, and bio-diesel.
Triglyceride a triple ester formed from glycerine (propan 1,2,3,triol) and three fatty acids.
ULSD Ultra low Sulphur Diesel. A type of fuel promote in recent years in an attempt to reduce atmospheric pollution but at the expense of engine wear.
Unsaturated any carbon structure containing double or occasionally triple bonds. Many vegetable oils contain fatty acids with one of more double bonds in them.
Viscosity the ability of a fluid to respond to movement. A high viscosity will resist movement, and a low viscosity will flow quickly. This is not necessarily the same as density. Viscosity is normally measured comparatively by the time a given volume of liquid will pass through a pipe of fixed diameter.
WVO Waste Vegetable Oil. The fat we collect from chip shops etc, which is the main constituent of our fuel.
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October 2002 June 2007